I hypothesized that many Ukrainians would be related to the Vikings, because of my admittedly loose understanding of the history, and it seems that I was correct. Specifically, the Ukrainians appear to be a mix of both Russian (not surprising) and Scandinavian heritage. What is surprising, is that they are also closely related to the Pashtuns of Afghanistan and Pakistan, who were also subjected to genocide by the Russians. This might be a coincidence, but I doubt it at this point, and I suspect instead, that this group of people (which includes many Jews, both Sephardic and Ashkenazi) has been the target of genocide for at least a century at this point, and that many Communist states deliberately exterminated exactly this bloodline of people. The chart below shows the distribution of ethnicities that are a 99% match to the Ukrainians.
Note that it must be the case that mtDNA contains information about paternal lineage, since my software can predict ethnicity, using mtDNA alone, with an accuracy of about 80%. This would be impossible if mtDNA did not contain information about paternal linage, and I’ve shown experimentally that the mtDNA of two populations does converge to a single, new set of genomes, almost certainly due to paternal selection. Further, note that PT stands for Pashtun, IL stands for Icelandic, and UK stands for Ukrainian (EN stands for English). The complete list of acronyms can be found at the end of my paper, A New Model of Computational Genomics .
Here’s the updated dataset, and any code required to generate the chart above can be found in .